Skip to main content Link Search Menu Expand Document (external link)

Containers

  1. Introduction
    1. What is Singularity
    2. Is it better to build my software or use a provided container?
    3. Additional resources
  2. Using Singularity
    1. Important notes
    2. Accessing the Singularity commands
    3. Finding and downloading images
    4. Running Singularity containers
      1. Starting a shell
      2. Executing a command within a container
      3. Using Singularity within a batch job
      4. Using Singularity with GPUs
    5. Working with files
  3. Frequently Asked Questions
    1. How do I send multiple commands to singularity exec?
    2. What is my user name within the container?
  4. Troubleshooting
    1. Singularity instance won’t clear from list

This topic explains how to use the Singularity container system on Sulis.

Introduction

What is Singularity

Singularity is a program that performs a type of operating-system level virtualisation known as containerisation. Singularity enables users to run workflows on the HPC clusters that would either need a different operating system to that being provided, or would otherwise be extremely difficult to build using our preferred build system (EasyBuild).

Singularity is capable of running many Docker containers by automatically converting them to the stand-alone singularity file format.

Is it better to build my software or use a provided container?

We generally recommend that you build your software (or request software to be built for you) from source code rather than using a provided container. Software that is built for and on Sulis will often perform better than software built elsewhere since, for example, we have made steps to optimise the builds for the AMD Zen 2 architecture. However some software/toolchains can be very difficult to build from scratch and in these circumstances it may be better to use a provided container.

Additional resources

Using Singularity

Important notes

  • It is not possible to build containers on Sulis. However it is possible to use containers built elsewhere.
  • When you “pull” existing Singularity containers, the singularity image for the container will be downloaded.
  • When you “pull” Docker images (for example from DockerHub), the “layers” of the Docker image will be downloaded, combined into a single image and automatically converted into the Singularity image format (.sif) which will make some additional changes for compatibility reasons. We cannot, of course, guarantee compatibility with all Docker container images.

Accessing the Singularity commands

Singularity is available on the compute, gpu and hmem nodes and you can run it within interactive sessions by simply running the singularity command; there are no modules to load and the version available will be updated on a semi-regular basis to keep in-line with security updates.

Running the singularity command with no options gives a list of available commands:

[user@node046(sulis) ~]$ singularity
Usage:
  singularity [global options...] <command>

Available Commands:
  build       Build a Singularity image
  cache       Manage the local cache
  capability  Manage Linux capabilities for users and groups
  completion  generate the autocompletion script for the specified shell
  config      Manage various singularity configuration (root user only)
  delete      Deletes requested image from the library
  exec        Run a command within a container
  inspect     Show metadata for an image
  instance    Manage containers running as services
  key         Manage OpenPGP keys
etc...

So running

[user@node046(sulis) ~]$ singularity version
3.8.4-1.el8

shows the version number.

Finding and downloading images

The singularity container image is the physical representation of the container environment (such as the operating system, installed packages and customised scripts). Container images can be downloaded from the Singularity Library, Docker Hub or NVidia NGC Catalog.

For the convenience of users, several containers have been pre-downloaded (and converted in the case of Docker images) and may be found at /sulis/containers/; users should be aware that these containers may not be the latest versions available from the corresponding Singularity Library or Docker Hub and therefore may not have the latest updates.

The singularity search command can be used to search for images in the Singularity Library e.g. (again, from within an interactive session)

[user@node046(sulis) ~]$ singularity search ubuntu
Found 144 container images for amd64 matching "ubuntu":

        library://amit112amit/default/ubuntu_numba:v0.0

        library://artinmajdi/default/cuda_ubuntu1604.sif:version0.2
                Signed by: E35C69E9D71B69856036D151103B9AF8ECB6192C,E35C69E9D71B69856036D151103B9AF8ECB6192C

        library://artinmajdi/default/cuda_ubuntu1604:sha256.612ef71a16585c2885411c8dc299725e7b4d993426a9e47636c84a3ddba74776
                Signed by: E35C69E9D71B69856036D151103B9AF8ECB6192C

        library://brendanharding/ubuntu_openmpi/ubuntu-18.04_openmpi-4.0.5:latest

        library://brx/test/ubuntu1:latest

        library://cfbasz/default/ubuntu_remix:latest,v0.1.2
                Performed a full system update and added some missing packages (gdb, gdb-doc and cgdb).
                Signed by: 97710305c7fce302aea7efebd029be270a153de0
...etc.

A particular image can then be downloaded or “pulled” using the pull command e.g. and will be (by default) saved to your current directory with a filename ending in .sif e.g.:

[user@node046(sulis) ~]$ singularity pull library://library/default/ubuntu:21.04
INFO:    Downloading library image
35.5MiB / 35.5MiB [==============================================================================================================================================================] 100 % 915.2 KiB/s 0s
[user@node046(sulis) ~]$

This downloads the operating system image for Ubuntu 21.04 and saves it in the Singularity Image Format (.sif which is a compressed, read-only format) in your current directory; this singularity images has been pre-downloaded and may be found at /sulis/containers/cloud.sylabs.io/library/default/ubuntu/ubuntu_21.04.sif. We would generally recommend downloading “official” singularity images such as those starting library://library/default/.

Docker images can be found by searching the Docker Hub online and then using the pull command again which will download the layers of the Docker container and automatically convert them into a single Singularity Image Format e.g.

[user@node046(sulis) ~]$ singularity pull docker://ubuntu:18.04
INFO:    Converting OCI blobs to SIF format
INFO:    Starting build...
Getting image source signatures
Copying blob 284055322776 done  
Copying config 04dc6f46a4 done  
Writing manifest to image destination
Storing signatures
2021/11/19 09:39:15  info unpack layer: sha256:284055322776031bac33723839acb0db2d063a525ba4fa1fd268a831c7553b26
INFO:    Creating SIF file...
[user@node046(sulis) ~]$

This Docker image has been pre-downloaded and converted to singularity, it may be found at /sulis/containers/hub.docker.com/ubuntu/ubuntu_18.04.sif.

It is important to note that in the process of converting the Docker image to the Singularity image, some changes are made to the image to deal with compatibility differences between the two technologies. It is therefore possible that some Docker Images may not run correctly (or at all) when converted to a Singularity image. In these circumstances it may be necessary to build a Singularity image from scratch by following the documentation.

Running Singularity containers

The following examples use the lolcow Singularity container image (provided by Sylabs for example purposes) which consists of a Ubuntu base operating system with the cowsay program installed within it.

Start an interactive session on a compute node and then run the following command to download the image to your local directory:

[user@node046(sulis) ~]$ singularity pull library://sylabsed/examples/lolcow
INFO:    Downloading library image
79.9MiB / 79.9MiB [================================================================================================================================================================] 100 % 2.5 MiB/s 0s
WARNING: integrity: signature not found for object group 1
WARNING: Skipping container verification
[user@node046(sulis) ~]$

This should leave you with the image file called lolcow_latest.sif in your current working directory. You may also copy a pre-downloaded version to your home directory from /sulis/containers/cloud.sylabs.io/sylabsed/examples/lolcow_latest.sif.

Starting a shell

Since a singularity image contains an Operating System environment, it is possible to start a shell session in an image (within an interactive session on a compute node):

[user@node046(sulis) ~]$ singularity shell lolcow_latest.sif
Singularity> cat /etc/os-release 
NAME="Ubuntu"
VERSION="18.10 (Cosmic Cuttlefish)"
ID=ubuntu
ID_LIKE=debian
PRETTY_NAME="Ubuntu Cosmic Cuttlefish (development branch)"
VERSION_ID="18.10"
HOME_URL="https://www.ubuntu.com/"
SUPPORT_URL="https://help.ubuntu.com/"
BUG_REPORT_URL="https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/"
PRIVACY_POLICY_URL="https://www.ubuntu.com/legal/terms-and-policies/privacy-policy"
VERSION_CODENAME=cosmic
UBUNTU_CODENAME=cosmic
Singularity> exit
exit
[user@node046(sulis) ~]$

Once “inside” the container, you are the same user that you are on the host system.

Executing a command within a container

It is also possible to execute a command within a container, without starting a shell.

[user@node046(sulis) ~]$ singularity exec lolcow_latest.sif cowsay moo
 _____
< moo >
 -----
        \   ^__^
         \  (oo)\_______
            (__)\       )\/\
                ||----w |
                ||     ||
[user@node046(sulis) ~]$

Using Singularity within a batch job

The standard instructions for single node jobs can be followed for writing a batch script in order to execute a singularity based job on the cluster. The following example batch script demonstrates how it would be possible to run cowsay via the singularity container within a compute job (allocating 8 cores to the job).

singularity.slurm

#!/bin/bash
#SBATCH --nodes=1
#SBATCH --ntasks-per-node=1
#SBATCH --cpus-per-task=8
#SBATCH --mem-per-cpu=3850
#SBATCH --time=08:00:00
#SBATCH --account=suxxx-somebudget

srun singularity exec lolcow_latest.sif cowsay -f tux Hello

Once your job has run, you should have a slurm output file containing the following:

 _______
< Hello >
 -------
   \
    \
        .--.
       |o_o |
       |:_/ |
      //   \ \
     (|     | )
    /'\_   _/`\
    \___)=(___/

Using Singularity with GPUs

Singularity supports enabling a running container to see and work with GPUs. In order to do this, you must pass the --nv option to singularity while running on a GPU node, for example:

singularity-gpu.slurm

#!/bin/bash
#SBATCH --nodes=1
#SBATCH --ntasks-per-node=1
#SBATCH --cpus-per-task=42
#SBATCH --mem-per-cpu=3850
#SBATCH --gres=gpu:ampere_a100:1
#SBATCH --partition=gpu
#SBATCH --time=08:00:00
#SBATCH --account=suxxx-somebudget

srun singularity run --nv ./tensorflow_21.10-tf1-py3.sif python3 ./tf1-benchmarks/scripts/tf_cnn_benchmarks/tf_cnn_benchmarks.py --model resnet50 --num_gpus=1 --xla --batch_size=256

This would run TensorFlow 1 benchmarks (see also the TensorFlow Application Notes) on the NVidia Tensorflow 21.10-tf1-py3 Docker container that has been converted to the singularity format (this container has been pre-downloaded and may be found at /sulis/containers/catalog.ngc.nvidia.com/nvidia/tensorflow\tensorflow_21.10-tf1-py3.sif).

Working with files

When you start a singularity container, the following locations are automatically made available (from the host system) within it:

  • Your current working directory. You still start in this directory when the containers runs, and it is additionally accessible via the $PWD environment variable.
  • Your home directory. You can access files in this directory within the container in the same way that you access files on the host system and it is additionally accessible via the $HOME environment variable. Note also that for most users, the current working directory will be within your home directory.
  • /tmp from the host computer. This will be made available in the same location within the container.

Frequently Asked Questions

How do I send multiple commands to singularity exec?

The recommended way of sending multiple commands to a container via singularity exec is to write them in a script file. For example (using the earlier cowsay example), in order to pipe the output from the fortune command to the cowsay command, you would write the following script:

fortune-cowsay.sh

#!/bin/bash
fortune | cowsay -f elephant

Assuming the script is called fortune-cowsay.sh, make it executable using the chmod command:

[user@login01(sulis) ~]$ chmod u+x fortune-cowsay.sh

and then write a submission script to use the new script:

fortune-cowsay.slurm

#!/bin/bash
#SBATCH --nodes=1
#SBATCH --ntasks-per-node=1
#SBATCH --cpus-per-task=8
#SBATCH --mem-per-cpu=3850
#SBATCH --time=08:00:00
#SBATCH --account=suxxx-somebudget

srun singularity exec lolcow_latest.sif ./fortune-cowsay.sh

Once your job has run, you should have a slurm output file containing something like:

 ______________________________________
/ Q: What's a light-year? A: One-third \
\ less calories than a regular year.   /
 --------------------------------------
 \     /\  ___  /\
  \   // \/   \/ \\
     ((    O O    ))
      \\ /     \ //
       \/  | |  \/ 
        |  | |  |  
        |  | |  |  
        |   o   |  
        | |   | |  
        |m|   |m|

What is my user name within the container?

Once you are “inside” the container, you are the same user as you are on the host system.

Troubleshooting

Singularity instance won’t clear from list

If you started a singularity container as an instance (using singularity instance start) and the instance was not shut down cleanly, then the information relating to that instance will not be automatically removed. If you subsequently run the singularity instance list command on the same host you will see the instance despite it not running. This “state” information is stored in .singularity/instances/sing/hostname under your home directory. You should be able to delete the directory corresponding to the host and instance that you started.